The olfactory nerve (I): Responsible for sense of smell, few nerves that are capable of regeneration.
The optic nerve (II): Carries visual information from the retina of the eye to the brain.
The oculomotor nerve (III): This controls most of the eye’s movements, the constriction of the pupil, and maintains an open eyelid.
The trochlear nerve (IV): A motor nerve that innervates the superior oblique muscle of the eye, which controls rotational movement.
The trigeminal nerve (V): This is responsible for sensation and motor function in the face and mouth.
The abducens nerve (VI): A motor nerve that innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which controls lateral movement.
The facial nerve (VII): This controls the muscles of facial expression, and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and oral cavity.
The vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII): This is responsible for transmitting sound and equilibrium (balance) information from the inner ear to the brain.
The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX): This nerve receives sensory information from the tonsils, the pharynx, the middle ear, and the rest of the tongue.
The vagus nerve (X): This is responsible for many tasks, including heart rate, gastrointestinal peristalsis, sweating, and muscle movements in the mouth, including speech and keeping the larynx open for breathing.
The spinal accessory (XI): This nerve controls specific muscles of the shoulder and neck.
The hypoglossal nerve (XII): This nerve controls the tongue movements of speech, food manipulation, and swallowing.